Leuk Lymphoma. 2023 Feb 10:1-9. doi: 10.1080/10428194.2023.2173524. Online ahead of print.
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a peripheral T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-1). This study investigated whether the number of newly diagnosed patients with ATL is decreasing in the background of a declining number of individuals infected by HTLV-1 in Kagoshima, Japan, one of the most endemic areas of HTLV-1 in the world. We retrospectively analyzed the number of newly diagnosed patients with ATL between January 2001 and December 2021 in three major hospitals. The number of newly diagnosed patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) in the same period was examined as an internal control. One thousand eighteen and 2,029 patients with ATL and B-NHL were registered, respectively. The age-adjusted incidence of ATL steadily increased between 2001 and 2012, whereas that between 2013 and 2021 decreased. Despite the limitation of its retrospective nature, this is the first report indicating a decrease in ATL patients in Japan.