A systematic review of immunosuppressive risk factors and comorbidities associated with the development of crusted scabies

by | Apr 4, 2024 | Publications

Int J Infect Dis. 2024 Apr 1:107036. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2024.107036. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVES: Crusted scabies (CS, Norwegian scabies) is a severe form of scabies, characterised by hyper-infestation of Sarcoptes scabiei mites. CS is commonly associated with immunosuppression but is also reported in overtly immunocompetent individuals. We reviewed immunosuppressive risk factors and comorbidities associated with CS.

METHODS: The National Library of Medicine (PubMed) database was reviewed for patient case reports of CS from January 1998 to July 2023. Two authors screened records for eligibility, extracted data, and one critically appraised the quality of the studies.


RESULTS: 436 records were identified, of which 204 were included for systematic review. From these, 683 CS patients were included. CS impacted both genders equally. Adults (21-59 years) were more commonly affected (45.5%) compared to children (0-20 years, 21%). Corticosteroid use was the most prevalent immunosuppressive risk factor identified (27.7% of all cases). 10.2% of reports were associated with HIV/AIDS, and 8.5% with HTLV-1 infection. 10.5% of patients were overtly immunocompetent with no known risk factors. Overall, 41 (6.0%) died, many subsequent to secondary bacteremia.

CONCLUSION: This study represents the first systematic review undertaken on immunosuppressive risk factors associated with CS. This provides insights into trends of immunosuppression and mechanisms of CS development.

PMID:38570134 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijid.2024.107036

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