Cureus. 2023 Nov 21;15(11):e49169. doi: 10.7759/cureus.49169. eCollection 2023 Nov.
Human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-I) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus of the Retroviridae family. The virus causes two well-recognized disease associations: adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM), also known as tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). We report a case of HTLV-1-induced adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia in a 45-year-old female who presented with complaints of swelling on the right side of her neck and rash on her upper and lower extremities and abdomen. The patient also had a history of strongyloidiasis infection and Crohn’s disease. She was found to have hypercalcemia and multiple lytic lesions of the bone found on the imaging. She also tested positive for HTLV-1 and T cell-positive for cluster of differentiation (CD) 2, CD3, partial CD5, and minimal CD56, later confirmed by the bone marrow (BM) and skin punch biopsies. ATL is characterized by the clonal proliferation of CD4+ T cells containing randomly integrated HTLV-I provirus, often associated with T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. ATL, in its aggressive forms, has one of the poorest prognoses of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is essential to raise awareness of ATL, although further research and trials are needed to solidify the treatment options to prevent mortality.