Case Rep Oncol. 2022 Nov 8;15(3):918-926. doi: 10.1159/000525174. eCollection 2022 Sep-Dec.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an oncogenic retrovirus. Of the approximate ten to twenty million people currently infected worldwide, 4-9% of infected individuals develop adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) or HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paresis (HAM/TSP) in their lifetime. The current report is based on a patient who presented concurrently with CD30+ lymphoma subtype ATLL and HAM/TSP. The patient’s ATLL responded to brentuximab-vedotin-based chemotherapy; however, HAM/TSP did not improve. The patient’s peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured and injected into immunodeficient mice, and the mice developed massive organ involvement and chronic lymphocytic leukemia-subtype ATLL. This case study is novel in the findings of concurrent development of ATLL and HAM/TSP, the response to brentuximab-vedotin chemotherapy, and the use HTLV-1 helix basic zipper protein-targeted probe for RNAscope for diagnosis.