Rinsho Ketsueki. 2023;64(4):283-289. doi: 10.11406/rinketsu.64.283.
A 55-year-old male was referred to our hospital after complaining of a sore throat for a month. Physical examination revealed a disturbance in consciousness, nuchal rigidity, painful multiple ulcers in the oral cavity, and erythema, the size of rice grains on the body. Hematological examination showed the following results: white blood cells, 7,910/µl (abnormal lymphocytes 2%), LDH, 203 U/l, corrected calcium, 11.2 mg/dl, soluble IL-2 receptor, 11,800 U/ml, and cytomegalovirus antigenemia assay (C10, C11) 43/49. Abnormal lymphocytes (CD4+CD25+) were discovered in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and skin samples. Southern blotting of peripheral blood revealed monoclonal integration of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) provirus DNA; and consequently, he was diagnosed with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Multiple tumors with ringed contrast effect were observed in the brain parenchyma using contrast-enhanced computed tomography. The cell number in the cerebrospinal fluid was 1,320/mm3 (ATLL cells were 79% in flow cytometry), and the protein level was 244 mg/dl; moreover, the examination revealed a positive result for human herpesvirus 6 DNA. Despite herpesvirus genus treatment and modified LSG15 therapy combined with intrathecal chemotherapy, the patient became comatose and died on day 21 of hospitalization. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of ATLL, and the involvement with the central nervous system is needed along with the development of standard treatment.