Rinsho Ketsueki. 2023;64(9):1032-1040. doi: 10.11406/rinketsu.64.1032.
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an extremely refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma that develops after persistent human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. In recent years, the number of HTLV-1 carriers has decreased due to lifestyle changes and different measures. Rapid progression in comprehensive genetic analysis techniques has revealed the molecular basis of ATL. Therefore, in addition to conventional prognostic indices based on clinical parameters, prognostic indices incorporating genetic mutations have been proposed. The standard treatment for untreated aggressive ATL is combination chemotherapy such as VCAP-AMP-VECP or CHOP, followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, as appropriate. Combined mogamulizumab and chemotherapy is a promising first-line treatment option for patients not eligible for transplantation. Salvage treatment with lenalidomide, brentuximab vedotin, tucidinostat, and valemetostat, in addition to mogamulizumab, has been introduced over the last decade. Advancements in allogeneic transplantation therapy, including early induction and transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide for GVHD prophylaxis, have also improved patient outcomes. This article highlights recent developments in the field of ATL.