J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Aug 27:S0190-9622(22)02610-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.11.068. Online ahead of print.
Viral induced cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are an uncommon group of lymphoproliferative disorders characterized by viral infection of T and NK-cells. This group of CTCL’s are more commonly encountered in Asians and Native Americans from Central and South America compared to Western populations. Viral associated lymphoproliferative disorders include a spectrum of entities that range from non-neoplastic lesions such as chronic active EBV infection and infective dermatitis to malignant diseases such as extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, hydroa vacciniforme-like T-cell lymphoma, and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. In this review article, we will focus on hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disorder, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LyG) and EBV-positive mucocutaneous ulcers. We will review the pathogenesis of these conditions, the challenges of making a timely diagnosis in early-stage disease, and discuss the common clinicopathological manifestations, mutational landscape, and approaches to treat these highly aggressive and frequently lethal types of lymphoma.