J Mol Evol. 2023 Apr 5. doi: 10.1007/s00239-023-10104-5. Online ahead of print.
About 90% of people infected with Human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) virus are asymptomatic, so it can be said that the prevalence of this virus is not completely clear. During chronic infection, the expression of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) protein increases and causes exhausted phenotype in T cells. Considering the role of host genetics and immune responses in HTLV-1 infection, in this case-control study, included 81 asymptomatic carriers (ACs) and 162 healthy controls (HCs), rs11568821 and rs41386349 polymorphisms of PD-1 gene were evaluated by Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method which investigated by one primer pair for both polymorphisms also, proviral load (PVL) measured by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR). The results showed that the mutant allele of rs11568821 (A) and rs41386349 (T) polymorphisms is associated with an increase in HTLV-1 infection significantly (p = 0.019 and p = 0.000 respectively). But there was no significant relationship between PVL and polymorphisms.