An Acad Bras Cienc. 2023 Oct 27;95(3):e20230323. doi: 10.1590/0001-3765202320230323. eCollection 2023.
Enteroparasites are an important public health problem and the treatment seeks to cure and reduce transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of anthelmintic treatment in individuals living in a rural community area in Camamu, Bahia, Brazil. The parasitological diagnosis was performed by spontaneous sedimentation, Baermann-Moraes and Agar Plate Culture methods. A total of 212 individuals were evaluated. The most frequent helminth was Trichuris trichiura, 24.5% (52/212), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides, 21.2% (45/212), hookworms, 16.5% (35/212), and S. stercoralis, 4.7% (10/212). In the anthelmintic treatment follow up, T. trichiura infection presented the lowest parasitological cure rate, only 60.6% (20/33). Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis infections demonstrated cure rates of 70.5 (12/17), 78.1 (25/32) and 100% (5/5), respectively. Individuals who remained infected underwent a new drug therapy. The second parasitological cure rate for T. trichiura was 38.5% (5/13), and 66.7% (2/3) and 75% (3/4) for hookworms and Ascaris lumbricoides, respectively. Trichuris trichiura infection presented the lowest parasitological cure rate at this second evaluation. This reinforces the need to perform a follow-up of all treated individuals. The possibility of drug resistance denotes the necessity for studies to clarify the mechanisms and to evaluate new therapeutic approaches.