Front Immunol. 2023 Mar 2;14:1118681. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1118681. eCollection 2023.
INTRODUCTION: Most T cell receptor (TCR)Vβ chain-expressing T cell lymphomas (TCL) including those caused by Human T cell leukaemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) have poor prognosis. We hypothesised that chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-mediated targeting of the clonal, lymphoma-associated TCRβ chains would comprise an effective cell therapy for TCL that would minimally impact the physiological TCR repertoire.
METHODS: As proof of concept, we generated CAR constructs to target four TCRVβ subunits. Efficacy of the CAR constructs was tested using conventional T cells as effectors (CAR-T). Since invariant NKT (iNKT) cell do not incite acute graft-versus-host disease and are suitable for ‘off-the-shelf’ immunotherapy, we generated anti-TCRVβ CAR-iNKT cells.
RESULTS: We show that anti-TCRVβ CAR-T cells selectively kill their cognate tumour targets while leaving >90% of the physiological TCR repertoire intact. CAR-iNKT cells inhibited the growth of TCL in vivo, and were also selectively active against malignant cells from Adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma patients without activating expression of HTLV-1.
DISCUSSION: Thus we provide proof-of-concept for effective and selective anti-TCRVβ CAR-T and -iNKT cell-based therapy of TCL with the latter providing the option for ‘off-the-shelf’ immunotherapy.