Clinical Features and Survival Outcome in Aggressive-Type Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Patients: Real-Life Experience of a Single Center from an HTLV-1 Endemic Country

by | Jun 27, 2024 | Publications

Medicina (Kaunas). 2024 May 26;60(6):872. doi: 10.3390/medicina60060872.

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a highly aggressive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease associated with the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1). ATLL is a rare disease, found more frequently in HTLV-1-endemic areas, Romania being one of them. Despite treatment advances, the prognosis remains dismal. We aimed to describe the clinical, biological, and survival outcome features of Romanian patients with aggressive-type ATLL. Materials and Methods: We report the data of a prospective, observational, and unicentric study of all 20 patients diagnosed with lymphoma and acute types of ATLL at our center over the past 12 years. Data were collected from the patients’ medical records. Results: Lymphoma-type ATLL (60%) was more common than acute-type ATLL (40%). Median age at diagnosis was 40.5 years, and most patients were female. Laboratory data revealed significant differences between acute and lymphoma-type ATLL, namely, higher leukocyte (p = 0.02) and lymphocyte counts (p = 0.02) and higher levels of corrected calcium (p = 0.001) in acute-type ATLL. All patients received chemotherapy, and only two underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Only six patients obtained a complete or partial response to chemotherapy, mostly the lymphoma-type ones. The median survival for all patients was 6.37 months, with higher survival in the lymphoma-type ATLL (8.16 months) than in the acute-type (3.60 months). Normal calcium levels (p = 0.011), uric acid (p = 0.005), BUN score (p = 0.000), JCOG-PI moderate risk (p = 0.038), and obtaining complete or partial response (p = 0.037) were associated with higher survival. Conclusion: Aggressive-type ATLL among Romanian patients presents distinct characteristics, including younger age at diagnosis, female predominance, and higher incidence of lymphoma-type ATLL compared to currently reported data. Survival remains very low, with all subtypes experiencing a median survival of less than one year.

PMID:38929489 | DOI:10.3390/medicina60060872

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