Co-Infections and Superinfections between HIV-1 and Other Human Viruses at the Cellular Level

by | May 24, 2024 | Publications

Pathogens. 2024 Apr 24;13(5):349. doi: 10.3390/pathogens13050349.


Co-infection or superinfection of the host by two or more virus species is a common event, potentially leading to viral interference, viral synergy, or neutral interaction. The simultaneous presence of two or more viruses, even distantly related, within the same cell depends upon viral tropism, i.e., the entry of viruses via receptors present on the same cell type. Subsequently, productive infection depends on the ability of these viruses to replicate efficiently in the same cellular environment. HIV-1 initially targets CCR5-expressing tissue memory CD4+ T cells, and in the absence of early cART initiation, a co-receptor switch may occur, leading to the infection of naïve and memory CXCR4-expressing CD4+ T cells. HIV-1 infection of macrophages at the G1 stage of their cell cycle also occurs in vivo, broadening the possible occurrence of co-infections between HIV-1 and other viruses at the cellular level. Moreover, HIV-1-infected DCs can transfer the virus to CD4+ T cells via trans-infection. This review focuses on the description of reported co-infections within the same cell between HIV-1 and other human pathogenic, non-pathogenic, or low-pathogenic viruses, including HIV-2, HTLV, HSV, HHV-6/-7, GBV-C, Dengue, and Ebola viruses, also discussing the possible reciprocal interactions in terms of virus replication and virus pseudotyping.

PMID:38787201 | DOI:10.3390/pathogens13050349

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