Int J Hematol. 2023 Mar 2. doi: 10.1007/s12185-023-03572-4. Online ahead of print.
Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is classified into four clinical subtypes: acute, lymphoma, chronic, and smoldering. Chronic ATL is further divided into unfavorable and favorable chronic types according to serum lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, and serum albumin values. Acute, lymphoma, and unfavorable chronic types are categorized as aggressive ATL, whereas favorable chronic and smoldering types are categorized as indolent ATL. Intensive chemotherapy alone is not sufficient to prevent relapse of aggressive ATL. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a potential therapeutic option to cure aggressive ATL in younger patients. Reduced-intensity conditioning regimens have decreased transplantation-related mortality, and increased donor availability has dramatically improved transplant access. New agents, including mogamulizumab, brentuximab vedotin, tucidinostat, and valemetostat, have recently become available for patients with aggressive ATL in Japan. Here, I provide an overview of recent advances in therapeutic strategies for ATL.