BMC Infect Dis. 2023 Jun 20;23(1):418. doi: 10.1186/s12879-023-08402-w.
BACKGROUND: In vitro diagnostics (IVDs) for primary detection test/screening of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) have recently been updated to new-generation products in Japan. In this study, the performance of these products was evaluated and discussed in terms of the usability of HTLV diagnosis in Japan.
METHODS: The performance of 10 HTLV IVDs for primary detection test and confirmatory/discriminatory test was evaluated. Plasma specimens that had been declared ineligible for transfusion were provided by the Japanese Red Cross Blood Center.
RESULTS: The diagnostic specificity of the IVDs was 100% (160/160). Six sandwich assays resulted in all HTLV-1/HTLV-positive specimens being positive (46/46). On the other hand, one sandwich assay, IVD under development 2 (UD2), resulted in one HTLV-1-positive and one HTLV-positive specimen being negative (44/46, 95.7%). One indirect assay, HISCL HTLV-1, could not detect one HTLV-positive specimen (45/46, 97.8%), but the updated product, UD1, correctly detected it (46/46, 100%). Serodia HTLV-I, based on a particle agglutination assay, resulted in 44 of the 46 positive specimens, but could not detect two specimens (44/46, 95.7%). ESPLINE HTLV-I/II, based on an immunochromatography assay (ICA), was able to diagnose all specimens as positive (46/46, 100%).
CONCLUSIONS: Six sandwich assays and an ICA demonstrated high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity and are recommended for use in HTLV diagnosis in conjunction with confirmatory/discriminatory test using the INNO-LIA HTLV-I/II Score.