BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2023 May 6;24(1):355. doi: 10.1186/s12891-023-06461-3.
BACKGROUND: Sporadic late onset nemaline myopathy (SLONM) is a muscle disorder characterized by the presence of nemaline rods in muscle fibers. SLONM has no known genetic cause but has been associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) is a known causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraplegia (HAM/TSP), a chronic inflammatory neurological disease. HTLV-1 has been reported to be implicated in inflammatory myopathies, as well as in HIV infection.; however, there have been no reports of an association between HTLV-1 infection and SLONM to date.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 70-year-old Japanese woman presented with gait disturbance, lumbar kyphosis, and respiratory dysfunction. The diagnosis of HAM/TSP with SLONM was made based on characteristic clinical symptoms of HAM/TSP, such as spasticity in the lower extremities, and cerebrospinal fluid test results; and of SLONM, such as generalized head drooping, respiratory failure, and muscle biopsy results. Steroid treatment was initiated and improvement in her stooped posture was observed after 3 days of treatment.
CONCLUSION: This is the first case report of SLONM combined with HTLV-1 infection. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between retroviruses and muscle diseases.