EJHaem. 2023 May 26;4(3):733-737. doi: 10.1002/jha2.725. eCollection 2023 Aug.
Viral cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma has been widely evaluated for detecting cancer and monitoring disease in virus-associated tumors. We investigated whether the amount of cfDNA of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) correlates with disease state in adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL). HTLV-1 cfDNA in aggressive ATL was significantly higher than that in indolent ATL and asymptomatic carriers. Notably, patients with lymphoma type represented higher HTLV-1 cfDNA amount than chronic and smoldering subtypes, though they had no abnormal lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. HTLV-1 cfDNA can be a universal biomarker that reflects the expansion of ATL clones.