Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2022 Nov 27:1-7. doi: 10.1080/14787210.2023.2151437. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-I) associated bronchioloalveolar disorder (HABA) is a chronic and progressive bronchiolar/alveolar disorder related to HTLV-1 infection. Clinical knowledge and guidance are lacking for the diagnosis and management of this condition.
AREAS COVERED: This work aimed to review the latest information and challenges regarding HABA diagnosis and treatment.
EXPERT OPINION: HABA is an immune-mediated state induced by HTLV-1. For diagnosis of HABA, other infectious diseases and pulmonary infiltration of adult T-cell leukemia should be excluded by investigations such as computed tomography (CT), transbronchial biopsy, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis. Typical CT findings in HABA include diffuse panbronchiolitis-like or bronchiectasis patterns, whereas cases with other abnormalities, including interstitial pneumonia, have also been reported. A high rate of polyclonal CD4+ and CD25+ lymphocytes is detected in BALF of patients with HABA, reflecting the infiltration of HTLV-1 infected T-cells in the lung. Current treatment options are not HABA specific, and include corticosteroids, macrolide antibiotics, and pirfenidone. Mitigation of the adverse effects of HTLV-1 infection requires the establishment of diagnostic criteria for the disease, screening programs for HABA in HTLV-1 infected individuals, and the development of effective disease treatment strategies.