Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2023 Feb 21:1-9. doi: 10.1080/09273948.2023.2175697. Online ahead of print.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus that causes T-cell malignant diseases (adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma) and HTLV-1-related non-malignant inflammatory diseases, such as HTLV-1 uveitis. Although the symptoms and signs of HTLV-1 uveitis are nonspecific, intermediate uveitis with various degrees of vitreous opacity is the most common clinical presentation. It can occur in one or both eyes and its onset is acute or subacute. Intraocular inflammation can be managed with topical and/or systemic corticosteroids; however, recurrence of uveitis is common. The visual prognosis is generally favorable, but a certain proportion of patients have a poor visual prognosis. Systemic complications of patients with HTLV-1 uveitis include Graves’ disease and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. This review describes the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, ocular manifestations, management, and immunopathogenic mechanisms of HTLV-1 uveitis.