Cureus. 2023 Oct 18;15(10):e47283. doi: 10.7759/cureus.47283. eCollection 2023 Oct.
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a rare form of T-cell lymphoma with poor median survival time and limited response to chemotherapy. We present a 45-year-old female from Ghana with generalized body rash, hypercalcemia, lymphadenopathy, and lytic bone lesions. She had a history of strongyloidiasis, treated two years ago, and her serology was positive for the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Histopathology of cervical lymph node and abdominal rash biopsy revealed T-cell lymphoma. We present a literature review on the topic and the challenges of diagnosis. We emphasize the importance of considering HTLV-1-associated ATLL in patients who have been treated for strongyloidiasis in the past and are presenting with rash or lymphadenopathy.