Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) grip on T-cells: investigating the viral tapestry of activation

by | May 12, 2024 | Publications

Infect Agent Cancer. 2024 May 11;19(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s13027-024-00584-5.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Human T-cell Lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) belongs to retroviridae which is connected to two major diseases, including HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). This study aims to investigate the mRNA expressions of key proteins correlated to T-cell activation in asymptomatic carriers (ACs) HTLV-1 infected patients, shedding light on early molecular events and T-cell activation following HTLV-1 infection.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 40 participants, including 20 ACs and 20 healthy subjects. Blood samples were collected, ELISA assessment for screening and confirmation with PCR for Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein (Tax) and HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) of the HTLV-1 were done. mRNA expressions of C-terminal Src kinase (CSK), Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Beta (GSK3β), Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14 (MAP3K14 or NIK), Phospholipase C Gamma-1 (PLCG1), Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase non-Receptor Type 6 (PTPN6) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase-7 (SLP-76) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase14 (MAP3K7 or TAK1) were assayed using RT-qPCR. Statistical analyses were performed using PRISM and SPSS software.

RESULTS: While there were no significant upregulation in CSK and PTPN6 in ACs compared to healthy individuals, expression levels of GSK3β, MAP3K14, PLCG1, SLP-76, and TAK1 were significantly higher in ACs compared to healthy subjects which directly contributes to T-cell activation in the HTLV-1 ACs.

CONCLUSION: HTLV-1 infection induces differential mRNA expressions in key proteins associated with T-cell activation. mRNAs related to T-cell activation showed significant upregulation compared to PTPN6 and CSK which contributed to T-cell regulation. Understanding these early molecular events in ACs may provide potential markers for disease progression and identify therapeutic targets for controlling viral replication and mitigating associated diseases. The study contributes novel insights to the limited literature on T-cell activation and HTLV-1 pathogenesis.

PMID:38734673 | DOI:10.1186/s13027-024-00584-5

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