BMC Infect Dis. 2023 May 11;23(1):320. doi: 10.1186/s12879-023-08289-7.
BACKGROUND: Numerous vaccination research experiments have been conducted on non-primate hosts to prevent or control HTLV-1 infection. Therefore, reviewing recent advancements for status assessment and strategic planning of future preventative actions to reduce HTLV-1 infection and its consequences would be essential.
METHODS: MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched from each database’s inception through March 27, 2022. All original articles focusing on developing an HTLV-1 vaccine candidate were included.
RESULTS: A total of 47 studies were included. They used a variety of approaches to develop the HTLV-1 vaccine, including DNA-based, dendritic-cell-based, peptide/protein-based, and recombinant vaccinia virus approaches. The majority of the research that was included utilized Tax, Glycoprotein (GP), GAG, POL, REX, and HBZ as their main peptides in order to develop the vaccine. The immunization used in dendritic cell-based investigations, which were more recently published, was accomplished by an activated CD-8 T-cell response. Although there hasn’t been much attention lately on this form of the vaccine, the initial attempts to develop an HTLV-1 immunization depended on recombinant vaccinia virus, and the majority of results seem positive and effective for this type of vaccine. Few studies were conducted on humans. Most of the studies were experimental studies using animal models. Adenovirus, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), vaccinia, baculovirus, hepatitis B, measles, and pox were the most commonly used vectors.
CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review reported recent progression in the development of HTLV-1 vaccines to identify candidates with the most promising preventive and therapeutic effects.