Neurol Clin Pract. 2023 Jun;13(3):e200147. doi: 10.1212/CPJ.0000000000200147. Epub 2023 Mar 27.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy (HAM) is a well-recognized neurologic complication of HTLV-1. Beyond HAM, several other neurologic manifestations are increasingly recognized, including acute myelopathy, encephalopathy, and myositis. The clinical and imaging features of these presentations are less well understood and potentially underdiagnosed. In this study, we summarize the imaging features of HTLV-1-related neurologic disease, providing both a pictorial review and pooled series of the less well-recognized presentations.
RECENT FINDINGS: 35 cases of acute/subacute HAM and 12 cases of HTLV-1-related encephalopathy were found. In subacute HAM, cervical and upper thoracic longitudinally extensive tranverse myelitis was noted, while in HTLV-1-related encephalopathy, confluent lesions in the frontoparietal white matter and along the corticospinal tracts were the most prevalent finding.
SUMMARY: There are varied clinical and imaging presentations of HTLV-1-related neurologic disease. Recognition of these features aids early diagnosis where therapy may have the greatest benefit.