Infective dermatitis associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1, an underdiagnosed disease

by | May 3, 2024 | Publications

Int J Infect Dis. 2024 Apr 30:107058. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2024.107058. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Infective dermatitis associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) (IDH) is a severe form of chronically infected eczema occurring in early childhood, although very rarely cases have been reported in adults. Most of the cases are from Jamaica and Brazil and occur in individuals with low socioeconomic status. IDH is always associated with refractory Staphylococcus aureus or beta-hemolytic Streptococcus infection of the skin and nasal vestibules. Patients with IDH may develop other even more severe HTLV-1-associated diseases, such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) of early or late appearance and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. In the context of the Brazilian experience, it has been observed that 54% of IDH patients exhibit the juvenile form of HAM/TSP while the estimated incidence of adult HAM/TSP is 3%. As there are no curative treatments for HTLV-1 infection (or vaccines) or most of its associated diseases, prevention of infection is fundamental, mainly by vertical transmission, as it is responsible for the development of IDH, infantojuvenile HAM/TSP, and ATL. Public measures to reduce this transmission must be implemented urgently. Furthermore, it is recommended, mainly in HTLV-1 endemic areas, to search for HTLV-1 infection in all patients with infected eczema, even in adults.

PMID:38697604 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijid.2024.107058

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