Gene. 2022 Sep 12:146885. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2022.146885. Online ahead of print.
The outcome of successful infection, including human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is determined by the interactions between the host and the infectious agent. Ten years of work on HTLV-1-associated diseases in an endemic region of Iran have been critically compared in the present study. The outstanding findings of RNA-seq, system biology analysis, and gene expression measurements on adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and enzootic bovine leukosis(EBL) in our lab encouraged us to investigate the significant role of oncogenes in the ATLL malignancy. Most studies assessed such interactions by the proviral load (PVL), Tax, and HBZ regulatory proteins in HTLV-1 and the host’s immunological and cell cycle factors. The current study is a comprehensive comparing view of our previously published and unpublished results investigating the HTLV-1-host interactions leading to the transformation of the infected cell. The main focus has been on the essential proteins implicated in the virus dissemination, cell survival, and proliferation of infected cells toward leukemia development and progression. Similar to its homolog BLV-AS-1-2 in EBL, the HTLV-1-HBZ is a pivotal factor in the maintenance and progression of the ATLL. In addition, the inappropriate activities of the PI3K/Akt pathway, BRCAs, and RAD51 in the DNA repair system, which are orchestrating many other immortalization pathways, might be the central factors in the manifestation of ATLL. HTLV-1-HBZ and the host PI3K/Akt pathway, BCAs, and RAD51 could be suggested as influential targets for the prognosis and proper therapy of ATLL.