Mol Biol (Mosk). 2022 Sep-Oct;56(5):710-731. doi: 10.31857/S0026898422050020.
Viruses are now recognized as bona fide etiologic factors of human cancer. Carcinogenic viruses include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, indirectly), and several candidate human cancer viruses. It is estimated that 15% of all human tumors worldwide are caused by viruses. Tumor viruses establish long-term persistent infections in humans, and cancer is an accidental side effect of viral replication strategies. Viruses are usually not complete carcinogens, supporting the concept that cancer results from the accumulation of multiple cooperating events, in which human cancer viruses display different, often opposing roles. The laboratory mouse Mus musculus is one of the best in vivo experimental systems for modeling human pathology, including viral infections and cancer. However, mice are unsusceptible to infection with the known carcinogenic viruses. Many murine models were developed to overcome this limitation and to address various aspects of virus-associated carcinogenesis, from tumors resulting from xenografts of human tissues and cells, including cancerous and virus infected, to genetically engineered mice susceptible to viral infections and associated cancer. The review considers the main existing models, analyzes their advantages and drawbacks, describes their applications, outlines the prospects of their further development.