Nonpharmacological interventions and outcomes in the management of complications of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-related myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: A systematic review

by | Mar 21, 2024 | Publications

J Res Med Sci. 2024 Feb 23;28:87. doi: 10.4103/jrms.jrms_300_22. eCollection 2023.


BACKGROUND: Human T-cell lymph tropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I)-related myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) is a progressive inflammatory process affecting the spinal cord that occurs as a result of HTLV 1. The use of nonpharmacological approaches has always been one of the treatment strategies in these patients, but disagreement about these interventions and their results has led to their limited use. Therefore, this study aimed to identify nonpharmacological interventions and their consequences in these patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We followed the Cochrane Handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. The present report is organized according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. This study was conducted at PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus, among all published studies by December 30, 2021. Keywords were: HTLV-1, Human T-lymph tropic virus 1, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, HAM/TSP, tropical spastic paraparesis, nonpharmacological intervention, nonpharmacological treatment, massage, physiotherapy, acupuncture, acupressure, and exercise. The quality of the studies was assessed using JADAD.

RESULTS: Of 288 articles, 11 were eligible for data extraction published between 2014 and 2021. 90/9% of studies were randomized clinical trials. 81/8% of articles were of high quality. The total sample size was 253 people, of which 137 (54/15%) were women. Approaches such as exercise and motion therapy, electrotherapy, behavioral therapy, and virtual reality can be used for these patients. With these interventions, results such as improved mobility and balance, physical condition, pain, quality of life, muscle spasticity, maximum inspiratory pressure, and urinary symptoms can be achieved.

CONCLUSION: The most common physical therapy method used in studies was active and passive body movements, which are associated with positive results for patients. Due to the small sample size in this group of studies, it is necessary to conduct more clinical trials for more accurate conclusions. Furthermore, due to the limited number of studies that have used electrical stimulation or combined intervention packages, it is not possible to say with certainty what effect these methods have on patients. It is necessary to conduct more clinical trials.

PMID:38510783 | PMC:PMC10953734 | DOI:10.4103/jrms.jrms_300_22

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