Novel insights into human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) pathogenesis-host interactions in the manifestation of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

by | Jun 28, 2024 | Publications

Rev Med Virol. 2024 Jul;34(4):e2567. doi: 10.1002/rmv.2567.

ABSTRACT

Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) was the first discovered human oncogenic retrovirus, the etiological agent of two serious diseases have been identified as adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma malignancy and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a debilitating chronic neuro-myelopathy. Despite more than 40 years of molecular, histopathological and immunological studies on HTLV-1-associated diseases, the virulence and pathogenicity of this virus are yet to be clarified. The reason why the majority of HTLV-1-infected individuals (∼95%) remain asymptomatic carriers is still unclear. The deterioration of the immune system towards oncogenicity and autoimmunity makes HTLV-1 a natural probe for the study of malignancy and neuro-inflammatory diseases. Additionally, its slow worldwide spreading has prompted public health authorities and researchers, as urged by the WHO, to focus on eradicating HTLV-1. In contrast, neither an effective therapy nor a protective vaccine has been introduced. This comprehensive review focused on the most relevant studies of the neuro-inflammatory propensity of HTLV-1-induced HAM/TSP. Such an emphasis on the virus-host interactions in the HAM/TSP pathogenesis will be critically discussed epigenetically. The findings may shed light on future research venues in designing and developing proper HTLV-1 therapeutics.

PMID:38937135 | DOI:10.1002/rmv.2567

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