Clin Hematol Int. 2023 Mar 15. doi: 10.1007/s44228-023-00032-y. Online ahead of print.
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) remains challenging to treat and has dismal outcome. Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (allo-SCT) has promising results, but data remain scarce. In this single-center retrospective analysis of 100 patients with ATLL from north America (67 acute, 22 lymphomatous), 17 underwent allo-SCT and 5 autologous SCT (ASCT), with a median follow-up of 65 months. Post-transplant 3-years relapse incidence (RI) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) were 51% and 37%, respectively, and 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 31% and 35%, respectively. ASCT 1-year RI was 80% compared to 30% in allo-SCT (p = 0.03). After adjusting for immortal-time bias, allo-SCT had significantly improved OS (HR = 0.4, p = 0.01). In exploratory multivariate analysis, patients achieving first complete response and Karnofsky score ≥ 90 had significantly better outcomes, as did Black patients, compared to Hispanics, who had worse outcome. In transplanted patients, 14 died within 2 years, 4 of which ASCT recipients. Our data are the largest ATLL transplant cohort presented to date outside of Japan and Europe. We show that allo-SCT, but not ASCT, is a valid option in select ATLL patients, and can induce long term survival, with 40% of patients alive after more than 5 years.