Performance of immunological assays for universal and differential diagnosis of HTLV-1/2 infection in candidates for blood donations from the Brazilian Amazon

by | Jul 5, 2024 | Publications

PLoS One. 2024 Jul 5;19(7):e0298710. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0298710. eCollection 2024.


The present study compares the ability of distinct immunological assays (chemiluminescence immunoassay-CLIA, western blot-WB and flow cytometry-FC-Simplex and Duplex) to detect anti-HTLV (human T-lymphotropic virus) antibodies in candidates for blood donations at the Amazonas State Blood Center (Brazil) between January 2018 and December 2022. Overall, 257,942 samples from candidates for blood donations were screened using CLIA, which led to 0.15% seropositivity for HTLV (409 samples). A total of 151 candidates for blood donations were enrolled for retesting with CLIA followed by additional testing using WB and FC-Simplex and Duplex analysis. Our results demonstrated that 62% (93/151), 20% (30/151) and 17% (26/151) of the samples presented positive results with retesting using CLIA, WB and FC-Simplex analysis, respectively. Additional analysis of the CLIA, WB and FC-Simplex results revealed an overall agreement of 56% for CLIA and WB (22 co-negative; 30 co-positive samples), 48% for CLIA and FC-Simplex (21 co-negative; 24 co-positive samples) and 80% for WB and FC-Simplex (51 co-negative; 23 co-positive samples). Considering the WB as the reference standard for the diagnosis of infection with HTLV-1/2, we observed that the CLIA results of ≤3.0 RLU and >10.0 RLU in the retest can be used define a negative or positive result, respectively, and could be used as new specific cut-off values. The overall agreement between WB and FC-Duplex for accomplishing the differential diagnosis was evaluated and demonstrated 100% correspondence for the diagnosis of HTLV-1 (15/15) and HTLV-2 (7/7). Our findings demonstrate that gaps in the diagnosis of infection with HTLV-1/2 could be overcome by the simultaneous use of distinct immunological assays during retesting of candidates for blood donations.

PMID:38968331 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0298710

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