Oncol Res Treat. 2023 Oct 16:1-6. doi: 10.1159/000534040. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: Adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma (ATLL) is an aggressive mature T-cell neoplasm caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. Despite its poor prognosis, there is no standard therapy for ATLL due to its low incidence and the disease affecting only endemic geographical clusters.
METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of patients with the diagnosis of ATLL at Moffitt Cancer Center and Memorial Healthcare System was done to identify patients and disease characteristics along with the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for the different therapies used.
RESULTS: The 61 patients analyzed showed a median age of 58 with 82.5% of them being of African American descent. The acute variant contributed to the majority of cases (43.9%), followed by 36.8% presenting as a lymphoma variant. There was no statistical difference in the PFS (6.4 m, 3.1 m, 2.1 m; p = 0.23) or OS (14 m, 8.9 m, 18.5 m; p = 0.14) between cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP), intensive chemotherapy regimens, and other modalities, respectively. However, the patients who had complete or partial remission with first-line therapy had better OS (15.9 m vs. 7.2 m; p = 0.004).
CONCLUSIONS: The study highlighted the poor outcome of the current regimens and the lack of a unifying protocol for this vicious disease. The acute variants were treated with more intensive regimens, but there was no difference in the OS between the three major options of CHOP, intensified chemotherapy, and others. This underscores the need for more clinical trials to develop better outcomes.