Viruses. 2022 Oct 15;14(10):2262. doi: 10.3390/v14102262.
Human T-lymphotropic viruses 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) infection has been described in several Amazonian populations; however, there is still a lack of data on the prevalence of the virus in riparian populations living in rural areas of the state of Pará. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection in four riverine communities and one rural area in the state of Pará and to describe the possible risk factors for infection. A total of 907 individuals responded to an epidemiological survey and gave blood samples collected for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies by immunoenzymatic assay (EIA). The serum-reactive samples were subjected to confirmation by an in-line assay (Inno-Lia) and by proviral DNA screening using real-time PCR (qPCR). The total prevalence was 0.8% (7/907) for HTLV-1/2 (CI: 0.2-1.3%), with 0.66% HTLV-1 and 0.11% HTLV-2. The prevalence by sex was 0.7% in women (4/565) and 0.9% in men (3/342). Among seropositive patients, 83.3% (5/7) reported being sexually active, and 57.1% (4/7) reported not having the habit of using condoms during their sexual relations. Intrafamily infection was also observed. The results reinforce the need for public policies to prevent and block the spread of HTLV, especially in riparian communities that are subject to difficulties in accessing the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde/SUS) because infected individuals need clinical monitoring for surveillance and early diagnosis of symptoms associated with HTLV-1.