Eur J Med Chem. 2023 May 3;256:115449. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2023.115449. Online ahead of print.
Cells latently infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) prevent people living with HIV-1 from obtaining a cure to the infectious disease. Latency reversing agents (LRAs) such as protein kinase C (PKC) activators and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can reactivate cells latently infected with HIV-1. Several trials based on treatment with HDAC inhibitors alone, however, failed to reduce the number of latent HIV-1 reservoirs. Herein, we have focused on a diacylglycerol (DAG)-lactone derivative, YSE028 (1), which is a PKC activator with latency reversing activity and no significant cytotoxicity. Caspase-3 activation of YSE028 (1) led to cell apoptosis, specifically in HIV-1 latently infected cells. Structure-activity relationship studies of YSE028 (1) have produced several useful derivatives. Among these, compound 2 is approximately ten times more potent than YSE028 (1) in reactivation of cells latently infected with HIV-1. The activity of DAG-lactone derivatives was correlated with the binding affinity for PKC and the stability against esterase-mediated hydrolysis.