Mol Neurobiol. 2023 Mar 22. doi: 10.1007/s12035-023-03303-0. Online ahead of print.
Human T lymphotropic virus-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HTLV/TSP), also known as HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and multiple sclerosis (MS) are chronic debilitating diseases of the central nervous system; although the etiology of which is different, similarities have been observed between these two demyelinating diseases, especially in clinical manifestation and immunopathogenesis. Exorbitant response of the immune system to the virus and neurons in CNS is the causative agent of HAM/TSP and MS, respectively. Helper T lymphocyte-17 cells (Th17s), a component of the immune system, which have a proven role in immunity and autoimmunity, mediate protection against bacterial/fungal infections. The role of these cells has been reviewed in several CNS diseases. A pivotal role for Th17s is presented in demyelination, even more axial than Th1s, during MS. The effect of Th17s is not well determined in HTLV-1-associated infections; however, the evidence that we have supplied in this review illustrates the attendance, also the role of Th17 cells during HAM/TSP. Furthermore, for better conception concerning the trace of these cells in HAM/TSP, a comparative characterization with MS, the resembling disease, has been applied here.