Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2022 Sep 30;64:e64. doi: 10.1590/S1678-9946202264064. eCollection 2022.
Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) plays a crucial role in viral infections by preventing viral replication and in the promotion of innate and adaptive immune responses. However, IFN-gamma can exert distinct effects in different persistent viral infections. The long-term overproduction of IFN-γ in retroviral infections, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), and human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), resulting in inflammation, may cause neuronal damage. This review is provocative about the role of IFN-γ during persistent retroviral infections and its relationship with the causation of some neurological disorders that are important for public health.